Incoterms® 2020

Incoterms® represent a global standard on how responsibilities, costs and risks are shared in international trade.

Incoterms® are globally recognized standardized rules for the distribution of obligations, costs, and risks in the international movement of goods. They specify which contractual partners are responsible for organizing transportation, loading and unloading, transportation insurance, various costs, and import and export clearance. The most important regulatory content, however, is the complexity of the transfer of risk with regard to accidental loss, accidental damage, or other deterioration of the goods.

Incoterms illustration
Incoterms illustration
Incoterms illustration

Abbreviation Explanation

Rules that apply for any type of transportation or combined transportation:


Ex Works (named place)


Free Carrier (named place)


Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)


Carriage and Insurance Paid To (named place of destination)


Delivered at Place (named place of destination)


Delivered at Place unloaded (named place of destination)


Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

Rules that apply only for ocean freight or
inland waterway transportation:


Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)


Free On Board (named port of shipment)


Cost and Freight (named port of shipment)


Cost, Insurance, Freight (named port of shipment)

Main Changes

Valid from 01.01.2020 in replacement of Incoterms® 2010
  • Changes concerning the D-Clauses
    The DAT Delivered at Terminal clause has been deleted. Instead of the DAT clause, the DAP clause or the new term DPU (Delivered at Place, unloaded) can be used. In contrast to DAP, where the goods are delivered ready for unloading at the destination, with DPU unloading is always included.
  • Changes of insurance coverage concerning CIP clauses
    The insurance coverage at CIP is now ICC-A (Institut Cargo Clauses: All Risk). In the case of the CIF clauses, the ICC-C (minimum insurance protection against named damaging events) continues to apply.
  • FCA with additional option
    With the FCA (Free Carrier) sender clause, an additional option for on-board bills of lading (also On-Board-B / L or shipped on-board Bill of Lading) has been added to the Incoterms. This additional option may be necessary for letter of credit transactions because it confirms that the goods have been accepted on board a seagoing ship or that this is at least intended.
  • FCA, DAP, DPU and DDP - organize transports yourself on an Incoterms basis
    What is new is that with the aforementioned clauses, the transport can also be carried out by the seller or buyer using their own means of transport.
  • Requirements and obligations related to sea freight transport
    In the explanations of the Incoterms, specifications have been made with regard to the responsibility of the buyer and seller. This includes, for example, regulations in connection with the provision of data, goods security, import and export processing, as well as permits and licenses.